Journal of Applied Research in the Digital Economy


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XBRL, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data Ethics


This first issue consists of three articles.  The first article is the first empirical study on XBRL IFRS filers, which are listed under the New York Stock Exchange. It provides valuable research findings and we hope the publication will have widespread diffusion within academia. A new measure of accounting reporting complexity (ARC) based on customized extensions XBRL elements in relation to the number of reporting tags (NRT) is proposed, expressed as the relative Extension Rate (ER) as a behavioral economics solution to improve markets. This article is based on the “transparency technology XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language)”Sunstein (2013), which should make data more accessible as well as usable for private investors. Overall, the findings contribute to the emerging behavioral economics trend with a novel application in data science and accounting.

The second article attempts to give directions on the newest trend of Artificial Intelligence. Stateshuman and diplomates are invited to consider three major trends in the wake of the Artificial Intelligence (r)evolution: (1) Artificial Intelligence has gained citizenship as robots have become the first citizens in Saudi Arabia. With these ethical questions arise the question of a stratified citizenship. Robots and algorithms may only be citizens for their protection and upholding social norms towards human-like creatures but may not have full citizen privileges such as voting and holding a public office. (2) Big data revolutions coupled with computational power hold unprecedented opportunities for crowd understanding, trends prediction and civil control. Ethical boundaries may also include data breaches, privacy infringements and discrimination.

The third article covers the topic “Big Data”. Today enormous data storage capacities and computational power in the e-big data era have created unforeseen opportunities for big data hoarding corporations to reap hidden benefits from individual’s information sharing, which occurs bit by bit in small tranches over time. This paper presents underlying dignity and utility considerations when individual decision makers face the privacy versus information sharing predicament. Thereby the article unravels the legal foundations of dignity in privacy but also the behavioral economics of utility in communication and information sharing. From legal and governance perspectives, the outlined ideas may stimulate the e-privacy discourse in the age of digitalization but also serving the greater goals of democratisation of information and upheld humane dignity in the realm of e-ethics in the big data era.