RegSafe© manifesto - an agile management control methodology for regulatory - driven programs


  • Beerbaum, Dirk


Scaled agile, Regulatory compliance


We investigate existing methodologies for running large scale agile regulatory-driven programs for globally distributed corporations: Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe©), Large-scale Scrum (LeSS) and Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD). Based on the specific requirements of regulatory-driven programs, high-complexity, equally business value, high level of audit engagement, dispersed customer need, principal-agent conflict caused information asymmetries, we conclude that the existing three methodologies SAFe©, LeSS and DAD do not fully adhere to the business needs for regulatory-driven programs for globally distributed corporations. Based on the identified gaps the methodology is refined and enhanced. This leads to the creation of RegSafe©, the agile management control methodology to scale agile regulatory-driven programs for globally distributed corporations. RegSafe© is based on the agile framework and bundles in a mixed-method approach management control system, stakeholder and behavioral economics underpinnings. The regulatory tsunami caused by the Global Financial Crisis in the Financial Sector and increasing regulatory intervention and less laissez-faire incorporating ad-hoc deliveries, large scale framework metric changes, mandatory global distributed system changes lead to multiple complex large-scale programs. Service industry such as Banks spend more than 60% on their change management program for regulatory compliance. The RegSafe© framework aims at providing a tool for global alignment of such large scale regulatory-driven programs, to enhance efficiency, maximise output, enable continuous delivery and control costs by applying hybrid agile and waterfall-driven planning leading to comprehensive management control system. It has implications for practitioners and researchers on the transformation of agile organizations and program managers of regulatory-driven programs.


ALQUDAH, M. & RAZALI, R. 2016. A review of scaling agile methods in large software development. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 6, 828-837.

AMBLER, S. & LINES, M. Choose your WoW: A Disciplined Agile Delivery Handbook for Optimizing Your Way of Working. 2020. Project Management Institute.

ANAGNOSTOPOULOS, Y. & KABEEGA, J. 2019. Insider perspectives on European banking challenges in the post-crisis regulation environment. Journal of Banking Regulation, 20, 136-158.

ANTHONY, R. N. 1965. Planning and control systems: a framework for analysis, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard ….

BASKERVILLE-MORLEY, R. F. 2005. A research note: the unfinished business of culture. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 30, 389-391.

BECK, K., BEEDLE, M., VAN BENNEKUM, A., COCKBURN, A., CUNNINGHAM, W., FOWLER, M., GRENNING, J., HIGHSMITH, J., HUNT, A. & JEFFRIES, R. 2001. Manifesto for agile software development.

BEERBAUM, D. Application of agile audit: A case study research.

BEERBAUM, D. 2019. Applying Agile Methodology to regulatory compliance projects in the financial industry: A case study research. Journal of Applied Research in the Digital Economy (JADE), Special Issue, 2.

BEERBAUM, D. & PUASCHUNDER, J. M. 2019. A behavioral economics approach to digitalization: The case of a principles-based taxonomy. Intergenerational Governance and Leadership in the Corporate World: Emerging Research and Opportunities. IGI Global.

BERLE, A. A. & MEANS, G. C. 1932. The modern corporation and private property, New Jersey: Transaction.

BLAIR, M. M. & STOUT, L. A. 1999. A team production theory of corporate law. Virginia Law Review, 247-328.

BRÖNNIMANN, T. 2003. Corporate Governance und die Organisation des Verwaltungsrates. Zeitschrift für Personalforschung/German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, 1, 483-486.

CLARKSON, P. M., LI, Y., RICHARDSON, G. D. & VASVARI, F. P. 2008. Revisiting the relation between environmental performance and environmental disclosure: An empirical analysis. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 33, 303-327.

COBB, C. G. 2011. Making sense of agile project management: balancing control and agility, John Wiley & Sons.

CRESWELL, J. W. 2013. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, Sage.

DONALDSON, T. & PRESTON, L. E. 1995. The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications. Academy of management Review, 20, 65-91.

DYBÅ, T. & DINGSØYR, T. 2008. Empirical studies of agile software development: A systematic review. Information and software technology, 50, 833-859.

EE, C. 2016. Auditing Agile-A Brave New World. 2. Available:

FERREIRA, A. & OTLEY, D. 2009. The design and use of performance management systems: An extended framework for analysis. Management accounting research, 20, 263-282.

FRANKLIN, I. 2012. Understanding Research: Coping with the Quantitative - Qualitative Divide, Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.

FREEMAN, R. E. 1984. Strategic management: A stakeholder approach, Boston: Pitman Boston.

FROOMAN, J. 1999. Stakeholder influence strategies. Academy of management review, 191-205.

GITTFRIED, N., LENHARD, E., BOHMAYR, W. & HELBING, C. 2017. When agile meets regulatory compliance. The Boston Consulting Group.

GUSTAVSSON, T. Assigned roles for Inter-team coordination in Large-Scale Agile Development: a literature review. Proceedings of the XP2017 Scientific Workshops, 2017. 1-5.

HEIDENBERG, J., WEIJOLA, M., MIKKONEN, K. & PORRES, I. A model for business value in large-scale agile and lean software development. European Conference on Software Process Improvement, 2012. Springer, 49-60.

HIGHSMITH, J. A. & HIGHSMITH, J. 2002. Agile software development ecosystems, Addison-Wesley Professional.

JAVDANI GANDOMANI, T. 2016. Agile transition and adoption human-related challenges and issues: A Grounded Theory approach. 62. Available:

JENSEN, M. C. 2001. Value maximization, stakeholder theory, and the corporate objective function. Journal of applied corporate finance, 14, 8-21.

KAGELMANN, U. 2013. Shared Services als alternative Organisationsform: Am Beispiel der Finanzfunktion im multinationalen Konzern, Deutscher Universitätsverlag.

KAMATH, R. 2019. COMMENT: The Agile methodology makes no sense in bankin. efinancialcareers.

KOTHARI, C. R. 2004. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, New Age International (P) Limited.

LARMAN, C. & VODDE, B. 2016. Large-scale scrum: More with LeSS, Addison-Wesley Professional.

LARMAN, C., VODDE, B. & JENSEN, B. 2017. Large-scale scrum, Dpunkt.

LEFFINGWELL, D. 2007. Scaling software agility: best practices for large enterprises, Pearson Education.

LEYBOURN, E. 2013. Directing The Agile Organisation: A lean approach to business management, IT Governance Publishing.

LIVERMORE, J. A. 2008. Factors that Significantly Impact the Implementation of an Agile Software Development Methodology. JSW, 3, 31-36.

MALIK, M., SARWAR, S. & ORR, S. 2020. Agile practices and performance: Examining the role of psychological empowerment. International Journal of Project Management, 39, 10-20.

MALMI, T. & BROWN, D. A. 2008. Management control systems as a package—Opportunities, challenges and research directions. Management accounting research, 19, 287-300.

MARKINA?KHUSID, A., MOULTON, A., HOWARD, G., JAMES, J. H., MAHONEY, P. J. & RICKS, S. 2018. Agile Dynamics at Scale. INSIGHT, 21, 29-31.

MARTIN, R. C. 2002. Agile software development: principles, patterns, and practices, Prentice Hall.

MCGREAL, D. & JOCHAM, R. 2018. The Professional Product Owner: Leveraging Scrum as a Competitive Advantage, Addison-Wesley Professional.

MCHUGH, M., MCCAFFERY, F. & CASEY, V. Barriers to adopting agile practices when developing medical device software. International Conference on Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination, 2012. Springer, 141-147.

MISHRA, S. & WEISTROFFER, H. R. 2008. Issues with incorporating regulatory compliance into agile development: a critical analysis. Southern Association for Information Systems (SAIS).

MKOBA, E. 2020. Conceptual Framework for Auditing Agile Projects. 8. Available:

OESTEREICH, B. & SCHRÖDER, C. 2017. Das kollegial geführte Unternehmen: Ideen und Praktiken für die agile Organisation von morgen, Vahlen.

POTH, A., JACOBSEN, J. & RIEL, A. Systematic agile development in regulated environments. European Conference on Software Process Improvement, 2020a. Springer, 191-202.

POTH, A., JACOBSEN, J. & RIEL, A. A systematic approach to agile development in highly regulated environments. International Conference on Agile Software Development, 2020b. Springer, 111-119.

PROROKOWSKI, L. & PROROKOWSKI, H. 2014. Organisation of compliance across financial institutions. Journal of Investment Compliance.

RUËL, H. J., BONDAROUK, T. & SMINK, S. 2010. The waterfall approach and requirement uncertainty: An in-depth case study of an enterprise systems implementation at a major airline company. International Journal of Information Technology Project Management (IJITPM), 1, 43-60.

SCANDURA, T. A. & WILLIAMS, E. A. 2000. Research methodology in management: Current practices, trends, and implications for future research. Academy of Management journal, 43, 1248-1264.

SCHWABER, K. 2012. Agiles Projektmanagement mit Scrum, Microsoft Press.

SCHWABER, K. & BEEDLE, M. 2002. Agile software development with Scrum, Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River.

TAIPALEENMÄKI, J. Towards Agile Management Accounting: A Research Note on Accounting Agility. Turunkauppak kea, 175.

TAIPALEENMÄKI, J. Towards Agile Management Accounting: A Research Note on Accounting Agility. 175.

TAIPALEENMÄKI, J. & IKÄHEIMO, S. 2013. On the convergence of management accounting and financial accounting–the role of information technology in accounting change. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 14, 321-348.

TESSEM, B. 2014. Individual empowerment of agile and non-agile software developers in small teams. Information and software technology, 56, 873-889.

ULRICH, P. 1984. Systemsteuerung und Kulturentwicklung: Auf der Suche nach einem ganzheitlichen Paradigma der Managementlehre. die Unternehmung, 303-325.

ULUDA?, Ö., KLEEHAUS, M., DREYMANN, N., KABELIN, C. & MATTHES, F. Investigating the adoption and application of large-scale scrum at a German automobile manufacturer. 2019 ACM/IEEE 14th International Conference on Global Software Engineering (ICGSE), 2019. IEEE, 22-29.

ULUDAG, Ö., KLEEHAUS, M., REITER, N. & MATTHES, F. 2019. What to expect from enterprise architects in large-scale agile development? A multiple-case study.

VON ROSING, M., VON SCHEEL, H. & SCHEER, A.-W. 2014. The complete business process handbook: body of knowledge from process modeling to BPM, Morgan Kaufmann.

WYSOCKI, R. K. 2011. Effective project management: traditional, agile, extreme, John Wiley & Sons.